College of Graduate Studies
The Texas A&M University System Board of Directors approved graduate degree programs at the master's level for Tarleton State University on November 26, 1969. Meeting in special session at College Station, the Coordinating Board of the Texas College and University Systems granted approval on December 4, 1969, for three initial master's-level programs, setting the Fall Semester of 1971 as the effective date of graduate course offerings for the programs.
Approved programs include the Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Accounting, Master of Business Administration, Master of Public Administration, Master of Education, Master of Criminal Justice, Master of Music, Master of Social Work, Master of Science in Nursing and Doctor of Education.
The mission of the College of Graduate Studies is to promote excellence in graduate education through teaching, research, and service. The College of Graduate Studies, in conjunction with the Graduate Council, accomplishes its mission through the planning and development of policy and procedures related to graduate education; the recruitment, admission, and retention of qualified students; and by providing support and coordination of high quality course offerings and degree programs.
Evidence of these collective goals is that the graduates will demonstrate the following:
- Increased professional competence in the chosen field of study;
- Refined use of analytical methodology; and,
- Advanced preparation and skills in the academic discipline.
Administration of the College of Graduate Studies is the responsibility of the Dean of the College of Graduate Studies. The Graduate Council, comprised of graduate faculty representatives from departments offering graduate programs, assists in establishing policies concerning the graduate school. The Dean of the College of Graduate Studies is chair of the Graduate Council and has the authority to act for the administration and the Council within limits of policy.
Graduate Degree Programs
Tarleton State University offers the Master of Education degree with majors in Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Administration; the Master of Arts degree with major fields in English, History and Communication Studies; the Master of Science degree with major fields in Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, Agricultural and Consumer Resources, Biology, Clinical Mental Health Counseling, Environmental Science, Human Resources Management, Information Systems, Kinesiology, Quality and Engineering Management, Management and Leadership, Mathematics, and Medical Laboratory Science; the Master of Business Administration degree; the Master of Accounting degree; the Master of Public Administration degree; the Master of Criminal Justice degree; the Master of Music degree in Music Education; the Master of Social Work degree; the Master of Science in Nursing degree with major fields in Nursing Education and Nursing Administration; and the Doctor of Education degree in Educational Leadership.
Admission policies, program requirements, and comprehensive examination procedures for each of these graduate degree programs are specifically described within the appropriate departmental sections that follow.
College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences
|Department of Wildlife, Sustainability and Ecosystem Sciences||Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences||MS|
|Department of Agricultural and Consumer Sciences||Agricultural and Consumer Resources||MS|
|Department of Animal Science and Veterinary Technology||Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences||MS|
College of Business Administration
|Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics||Accounting||MAcc|
|Department of Marketing and Computer Information Systems||Information Systems||MS|
|Department of Management||Business Administration||MBA|
|Department of Management||Human Resources Management||MS|
|Department of Management||Management and Leadership||MS|
College of Education
|Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies||Educational Leadership||EdD|
|Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies||Educational Administration||MEd|
|Department of Curriculum and Instruction||Curriculum and Instruction||MEd|
|Department of Kinesiology||Kinesiology||MS|
|Department of Psychology and Counseling||Clinical Mental Health Counseling||MS|
College of Liberal & Fine Arts
|Department of English & Languages||English||MA|
|Department of Social Sciences||History||MA|
|Department of Criminal Justice||Criminal Justice||MCJ|
|Department of Fine Arts||Music Education||MM|
|Department of Communication Studies||Communication Studies||MA|
|School of Criminology, Criminal Justice and Strategic Studies||Public Administration||MPA|
College of Science & Technology
|College of Science and Technology||Social Work||MSW|
|Department of Biological Sciences||Biology||MS|
|Department of Chemistry, Geoscience, and Physics||Environmental Science||MS|
|Department of Engineering Technology||Quality and Engineering Management||MS|
|Department of Mathematics||Mathematics||MS|
|Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences||Medical Laboratory Science||MS|
|Department of Nursing||Nursing Administration||MSN|
|Department of Nursing||Nursing Education||MSN|
General Graduate Admissions
Admission to the College of Graduate Studies
Admission to the College of Graduate Studies is administered for the Graduate Council by the Dean of the College of Graduate Studies. Applicants seeking admission must present the following credentials and materials indicating they possess the ability to pursue graduate work successfully:
- A formal application for admission. Application forms are available online through www.ApplyTexas.org. For U.S. citizens, applications must be received one month prior to the regular registration dates indicated in the current University Calendar. A $30 application-processing fee must accompany applications of students who will be attending Tarleton for the first time or who have not been enrolled at Tarleton for one year.
- Official transcript(s) of all previous academic course work. The transcript must bear the date of bachelor's degree conferral or master's degree if applicable, and indicate that the applicant was in good standing at the last institution attended.
- GRE/GMAT/MAT scores if required by Major department. Please check with your major department to see which exam, if any, is preferred.
- A Statement of Purpose addressing career and academic goals. (600 words or less)
Beyond these general requirements for admission to the College of Graduate Studies, departments may set additional standards for admission to degree programs, subject to administrative approval.
Categories of Admission
Enrollment in the College of Graduate Studies requires that students obtain the following:
- Admission to a graduate degree program
- Admission to a professional (graduate) certificate program
- Provisional admission for Tarleton undergraduates
- Admission as a non-degree seeking student
- Admission to an accelerated bachelor's-to-master's program
Admission to a Graduate Degree Program
Admission to any graduate degree program is granted by the Dean of the College of Graduate Studies upon recommendation of the department of proposed study.
- A minimum grade point average (based on a 4-point scale) of 2.5 on the last 60 hours of credit completed
- GRE/GMAT/MAT scores if required by Major department. Please check with your major department to see which exam, if any, is preferred.
- Completion of specific departmental admission requirements and recommendation for admission from the appropriate department may be required for admission to the chosen field of study.
- Students admitted under this category are placed on Academic Warning. Students must achieve a 3.0 cumulative grade point average their first semester of enrollment or they will be placed on Academic Suspension (See Graduate Student Performance section).
- Admission-Warning status is only granted to students who have between a 2.5-2.99 GPA and apply for a major under specific academic departments that DO NOT require GRE/GMAT/MAT scores.
- Admission will not be granted to a student whose GPA is less than 2.5 on the last 60 hours of course work completed.
- Completion of specific departmental admission requirements and recommendation for admission from the appropriate department may be required for admission to the chosen field of study
Admission to a Professional Teacher Certificate Program
- Professional teacher certificate programs are open only to graduate students.
- Admission to a professional teacher certificate program is granted upon the recommendation of the head of the department in which the program is offered and the submission of a certificate plan approved by the University Teacher Certification Officer.
- Professional Teacher Certification is tied to admission to a graduate degree program in the College of Education.
Provisional Admission for Undergraduates. An undergraduate enrolled in a bachelor's degree program at Tarleton may be considered for admission to the College of Graduate Studies provided that the student:
- Is within 12 hours of graduation
- Is recommended by his/her major department
- Has attained a minimum GPA of 3.0 on the last 60 hours of undergraduate course work
- May take no more than 12 hours of graduate work while in provisional status
Note: No graduate course work may be counted toward an undergraduate degree. Exceptions apply to students admitted to an accelerated bachelor's-to-master's program. No application is needed for provisional enrollment. Students need to submit the Provisional Student Form to the College of Graduate Studies. Students will submit a graduate application once they are awarded their bachelor's degree.
Admission as a Non-Degree Student
Applicants who designate that they do not choose to seek a graduate degree but who hold a baccalaureate degree from an accredited college may be enrolled for course work in the College of Graduate Studies as Non-Degree Seeking graduate students. Students in this category may take up to 18 hours of course work. They waive the right to count more than 12 hours toward an advanced degree at Tarleton State University. In order to have any graduate course work count toward a master's degree, students must meet admission criteria to the College of Graduate Studies, and the degree program, at the time application is made and course work is taken. This includes standardized test requirements, if applicable.
Non-degree students are not required to submit scores on the GRE or the GMAT. However, official transcript(s) which indicate the conferral of the bachelor's degree and good standing at the last college attended are required. Admission will not be granted to a student whose GPA is less than a 2.5 on the last 60 hours of course work completed. Students seeking certain types of certification may be asked to submit GRE scores by their academic department.
An applicant to a degree program who appears to be admissible on the basis of the credentials submitted, but who is unable to supply all of the official records prior to registration may be admitted for one semester pending receipt of official transcripts. A student who is in special status has no assurance, however, that work completed while in this classification will be applicable toward degree requirements should he or she subsequently gain admission to a degree program.
Admission to an Accelerated Bachelor's-to-Master's Program
The 5-year bachelor’s-to-master’s degree program allows talented undergraduates at Tarleton State University an opportunity to complete the requirements for both the bachelor’s and master’s degrees at an accelerated pace. Undergraduate students may double-count up to 12 credit hours of graduate courses toward a master’s degree and earn a non-thesis master’s degree in the same field within 12 months of completing the bachelor’s degree or obtain a thesis-based master’s degree in the same field within 18 months of completing the bachelor’s degree. All programs will meet SACSCOC requirements for program length. Students entering the participating programs should be encouraged to place a focus on research as a part of their undergraduate/graduate plan.
Accelerated Degree Guidelines
The same department or program that awards the bachelor’s degree must sponsor the master’s degree. This does not preclude master’s degrees in interdisciplinary graduate programs in which the sponsoring department participates, nor acceptance of the student in a closely related field, if the department granting the graduate degree recommends admission to the Graduate School.
Accelerated Degree Admission Requirements
- Students must have a minimum accumulated grade point average of 3.5/4.0 at TSU.
- No GRE or other standardized test score will be required unless the participating program or department requires it for admission to their program.
- Students must have completed a minimum of 75 and a maximum of 108 credit hours in their undergraduate programs, including credits earned from advanced placement.
- Transfer students must have completed a minimum of two semesters as a full-time student at Tarleton, a minimum of 24 hours.
Students should consult with their major department to see which options are available.
Dual Master's Degree
A Dual Degree program is designed to allow students to complete two master's degrees concurrently. Participating programs will provide specific information on their master’s degree and possible combinations.
Students seeking the dual master’s degree must complete a minimum of 48 to 60 graduate credit hours beyond the baccalaureate as prescribed by specific programs and as approved by the graduate faculty of supervising departments.
Dual Degree Guidelines
- A dual master’s degree program allows students to work simultaneously completing studies in two (2) separate, but often related fields of study in order to earn two graduate degrees.
- Leveling courses, if required in a non-related discipline, should be built in the degree and may result in an increase in total hours to be taken.
- A general guideline for programs above 36 hours is 12 of the course work may be applied to both degrees.
- At least 18 hours must be used in each of the individual fields.
Dual Master's Degree Admission Requirements
Applicants must be accepted into both programs at the time of admission and must meet the admission requirements for both degree programs. Students must have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in at least 12 graduate semester hours from an accredited College or University if applicable.
Students should consult with their major department to see which options are available.
Admission as a Post-Baccalaureate Student
An applicant who does not wish to pursue a graduate degree or graduate-level teacher certification program but who has earned a bachelor's degree from an accredited U.S. institution and who is in good standing at the last school attended may apply for admission as a post-baccalaureate student. These applications are received and processed in the Office of Undergraduate Admissions.
Post-baccalaureate students are subject to all requirements and regulations that apply to undergraduates. They must meet the academic progress standards applicable to undergraduates and are subject to the same probation/suspension policies.
Admission as an International Student
Admission of international students to graduate programs will be based upon holding a valid U.S. equivalent bachelor's-level degree from an accredited college or university. The quality of the applicant's college-level work is judged from the scores, grade point average and writing sample. A nonrefundable processing fee of $130 (US) made payable to Tarleton State University must be included with the application. Along with the application, the student must include all previous university academic records officially translated in the English language. Applicants must provide official transcripts and evaluations of all previous university academic records. Evaluations must be done by recognized evaluation services and typically must adhere to standards of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers and include items such as course names, course descriptions, course credit, course grades, grade point average, degree earned and the date earned as recommended by the National Council on the Evaluation of Foreign Educational Credentials. Applicants must provide official transcripts and evaluations of all previous university academic records. Evaluations must be done by recognized evaluation services and typically must adhere to standards of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers and include items such as course names, course descriptions, course grades, grade point average, and degree earned and the date earned as recommended by the National Council on the Evaluation of Foreign Educational Credentials. The International Academic Program office can provide a list of evaluation service providers but it is the applicant's responsibility to secure and pay for the evaluation and to make sure it is done early enough to meet admission deadlines.
In addition to a signed application requirement and evaluated documents, the College of Graduate Studies requires a minimum admission score average (CGPA) of 3.0 for the Bachelor Degree, the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) minimum score of 80 on the internet-based test, a minimum score of 213 on the computer-based test, or a minimum score of 550 on the paper-based test, and evidence of a GRE or GMAT1 score, the applicant may be required to attend additional English classes to improve speaking and writing skills, or on the recommendation of the Head of the Department, may be required to take leveling classes in a particular field of study as instituted by the Department. Students may substitute the IELTS for the TOEFL.
The international applicant must have a reliable financial sponsor. A sponsor is obligated to endorse all expenditures for the applicant during the entire course of study. Note that a copy of all financial statement documentation must be included with the admission packet.
International applicants must submit two passport-style color photos taken within six months of application. Additionally, Tarleton State University requires that all students have medical insurance with coverage in the United States. Students may wish to purchase insurance through the University upon arrival.
All application materials must be sent to the Office of International Programs. Applications cannot be processed and an I-20 cannot be issued until all materials are received and the applicant is admitted in the College of Graduate Studies.
Students planning to pursue a master's program in business may submit GMAT scores instead of GRE scores.
Enrollment in Graduate Courses
Graduate Advisor and Student's Advisory Committee
The graduate coordinator/advisor, designated by a department, assists students in planning their initial course work prior to granting of admission to the program of study. Before seeking enrollment in any course that might be applied toward a master's degree, students must consult their advisors. A temporary advisor will be available to those enrolling for the first time in an off-campus course.
After receiving admission to the College of Graduate Studies and enrolling for graduate courses, the student should consult with the graduate advisor concerning appointment of an advisory committee. The advisory committee is responsible for guiding and directing the student's entire academic program, which includes initiating all academic actions concerning the student, developing the degree plan, meeting required deadlines, and administering the comprehensive testing prior to conferral of the master's degree. Moreover, the advisory committee, as a group and as individual members, is responsible for counseling the student on academic matters, and in the case of academic deficiency, initiating recommendations to the Dean of the College of Graduate Studies.
Thesis or Dissertation Committee
A thesis or dissertation committee must be graduate faculty. The committee composition may be decided by the student in consultation with their graduate advisor and generally follows as:
1. Chair (experienced graduate faculty member from the student's academic department)
2. Committee member from the student's department or closely-related discipline within the department or college
3. Committee member in a closely related discipline from a department within the college or from another college where their expertise is suitable for the research question or design
4. A fourth committee member can be allowed for additional expertise with the graduate dean's approval.
|Semester Credit Hours||Fall/Spring||Summer|
|Semester Credit Hours||Fall/Spring||Summer|
Students with financial aid/scholarship(s) should refer to the Financial Aid website for additional information, regarding aid, during the full-time summer term.
Graduate Student Performance
Every student enrolled in the College of Graduate Studies is required to maintain a high level of performance and comply fully with the policies of the institution. The College reserves the right to suspend any graduate student who does not maintain satisfactory academic standing or fails to conform to University regulations.
Students who have achieved admission are expected to maintain a minimum 3.0 GPA on work completed at Tarleton. If in a particular semester a student's cumulative GPA or overall GPA falls below the 3.0 GPA minimum, he/she will be given notice of unsatisfactory academic performance. The student must attain a 3.0 cumulative GPA during her or his next period of enrollment; failure to do so will result in suspension for one long semester or the summer term. A student must maintain at least a 3.0 grade point average every semester upon returning from the suspension. A graduate student is allowed one suspension. If poor academic performance results in a second suspension, the student will be permanently dismissed from the university. A student's cumulative GPA is calculated based on coursework attempted at Tarleton State University and a student's overall GPA is calculated based on coursework attempted at Tarleton State University plus any applicable transfer coursework.
At the end of any grading period, if a student's overall GPA falls below 2.0 he/she will be automatically suspended.
Students who have been admitted on Academic Warning must achieve a 3.0 GPA or greater their first semester of enrollment. If requirements are not met, admission will be rescinded, and students will be placed on Academic Suspension.
Post-baccalaureate students are subject to the academic progress policies applicable to undergraduates at Tarleton State University. Academic deficiencies of students in this category will be calculated according to the current undergraduate probation/suspension policy, however, undergraduate courses taken in conjunction with graduate courses will be used to determine academic standing.
Graduate students who are on first-time suspension must reapply (including the $30 application fee) to the College of Graduate Studies for reinstatement.
Graduate degree credit is allowed only for A, B, and C grades. A grade point average of 3.0 or higher is required:
- For all courses included in a degree plan
- For all courses comprising the major field
- For courses comprising the concentration field, if one is selected
Courses taken at Tarleton may not be repeated at another institution for degree credit. If a course is repeated at Tarleton, the better grade in the course shall be counted in computing the student's grade point average.
The grading system for graduate students is:
- A-Excellent, 4 grade points per semester hour
- B-Good, 3 grade points per semester hour
- C-Fair, 2 grade points per semester hour
- D-Not Passing for graduate course work. Course must be repeated.
- I-In-Progress (for thesis courses only)
- PR-In-Progress (for dissertation courses only)
- S-Satisfactory (for completion of 6 hours of thesis and 12 hours of dissertation courses only)
- W-Withdrawal from course, no grade designated
- WF-Withdrawal failing (included in GPA)
- Z-Research or practicum courses for which only grade given is for final three hours enrolled. Exclusive use for Department of Curriculum and Instruction.
The grade K shall be recorded for a student only in case of extraordinary circumstances. This entry is used only in such cases after the instructor and his/her department head have concurred that the incomplete entry is justified. A grade of K must be made up by the end of the next semester and in all cases before registering for the next sequential course. If this grade is not made up within the prescribed time limit, it automatically becomes an F.
Internships in Education not completed during the first semester of registration will receive a letter grade of K (incomplete). Registration will be permitted for the following semester, at which time a letter grade will be awarded upon satisfactory completion of the required work. If the work is not completed during the subsequent semester, the previous semester's K will become NC, and a letter grade of F will be placed on the transcript for the subsequent semester's work.
Completion Time Limit
Course credits more than six years old at the anticipated time for degree completion may not be counted for a degree. Credits are considered to be earned when they are recorded on the official transcript.
General Requirements for the Master's Degree
Semester Hour Minimum
The candidate must earn graduate credit amounting to a minimum of 30-36 semester hours.
Credit for Problems Courses
Courses at the 3000 and 4000-level may be counted toward the degree upon a written recommendation of the student's advisor and approval of the chair of the department in which the course is offered and the Dean of the College of Graduate Studies. Students taking such courses for graduate credit will be expected to complete course requirements different from those ordinarily included for undergraduates. The number of individual problems courses taken for credit toward the degree and the approved undergraduate courses is limited to a combination of no more than 12 hours. Courses used for this purpose must have the 5086 graduate-level designated number.
Undergraduate courses taken for leveling or as undesignated electives are used in the calculation of the semester and cumulative grade point averages and thus determine one's academic standing.
Limitations on Transfer Courses
Upon the recommendation of the advisory committee and the head of the major department and the approval of the Dean of the College of Graduate Studies, the University may accept as many as 12 hours of graduate work completed at another regionally accredited institution. Course work in which no formal grades are given or in which grades other than letter grades (A, B, C, etc.) are given (for example CR, P, S, U, etc.) is not accepted for transfer credit. Credit for course work submitted for transfer from any college or university must be shown in semester credit hours or equated to semester credit hours.
A maximum of 12 hours from courses that have been applied or counted toward a completed graduate degree program may be transferred into a Tarleton master's degree or doctoral program with the approval of the academic department in which the degree is sought. A maximum of 12 hours from a completed master's degree from Tarleton may be counted toward a second master's degree with the approval of the academic department. All courses accepted in transfer must have been completed within six years of the time that the student will complete his/her graduate degree program at Tarleton.
No academic work completed by correspondence or continuing education may be applied to graduate degree programs.
Admission to Candidacy for Master's Degree
Full admission to Graduate Studies is a prerequisite to admission to candidacy for the master's degree. A graduate student may be admitted to candidacy when his / her advisory committee files an approved degree plan accompanied by the student's application for candidacy. The advisory committee will not file a degree plan until the student has completed at least 12 semester hours of graduate credit with an overall B (3.0) GPA.
A graduate student's degree plan includes those courses listed for degree credit on the official degree plan form. All courses on the approved degree plan must be completed with a satisfactory grade to meet requirements for the degree. Changes in an approved degree plan can be made by recommendation to the Dean of the College of Graduate Studies by the student's complete advisory committee and head of his or her major department.
Courses listed for graduate credit on the approved degree plan in which the student has received a final grade may not normally be removed from the degree plan, although courses acceptable for graduate credit may be added. Exceptions to this policy must be approved by the student's advisory committee, head of his or her major department, and the Dean of the College of Graduate Studies.
All degrees require a minimum of 18 semester hours to be completed in the student's major field.
The graduate major requires an undergraduate background of at least 24 semester hours, including 12 advanced hours. However, graduate students who have taken 18 hours of advanced undergraduate education courses as a prerequisite for a teaching certificate may be admitted to a Master of Education degree program.
Research and Practicum Requirement
All students seeking a master's degree must have credit for an approved research course.
Not every graduate program at Tarleton requires a thesis for completion of a master's degree. The Master of Arts, Master of Business Administration, Master of Science, and some majors in the Master of Education degree provide a thesis option.
Students must have full admission to a degree program and the permission of the department head to enroll in thesis. A thesis will not be accepted unless a student has completed a minimum of six semester hours of thesis course work (5088). The Thesis Manual, which contains details regarding the preparation and submission of a thesis for approval, is available on the Graduate College website. Students who plan to pursue a thesis should obtain a copy of this manual early in their graduate program. A thesis proposal must be submitted to the Graduate Office at least one semester prior to a thesis submission.
Thesis Credit. Students who pursue a thesis are required to enroll each semester in at least one thesis course until the thesis is completed. Those who make satisfactory progress will be given the grade of I. Once the thesis has been approved and accepted, the final six semester hours of thesis will be assigned the grade of S. The thesis grade of S is not included in the GPA calculation for the degree major or minor. Only six hours of thesis credit will count towards the 30-36 required hours.
The Comprehensive Examination
Candidates for any of the master's degrees at Tarleton must satisfactorily pass a comprehensive examination. A graduate student must be admitted to candidacy for a degree before he/she will be allowed to take the comprehensive examination.
The policies and procedures for the comprehensive examinations are available in the office of the department head of the student's major field of study. Early in their degree program students should review the requirements for taking the examination. Some departments require both oral and written examinations, which must be scheduled early in the semester in which they are to be administered. Consult the University calendar for deadlines for submission of comprehensive examination results to the College of Graduate Studies.
The oral examination, when required, is conducted by the student's advisory committee. A representative of the Dean of the College of Graduate Studies will be invited to participate in this examination.
Students whose performance on the comprehensive examination is unsatisfactory may reschedule an examination at the next regular administration, or, at the discretion of the advisory committee and head of the department involved, at an earlier date. Unless departmental requirements are more limiting, students who attempt the comprehensive examination three times and are not successful will be dropped from the graduate program.
Application for a Degree
Candidates for a degree must complete the online graduation application not later than the dates specified in the University Calendar. Students must have a current graduate degree plan on file in the Graduate Office before applying to graduate.
To be considered for degree conferral, a candidate must be in good standing with the University. All contractual and financial obligations to the University must be satisfied.
Assistantships for graduate students are available in most academic departments that offer a master's or doctoral program as well as other university support areas. Most assistantships are considered as a staffing function of the department in which the applicant wishes to study.
A graduate student must meet the following requirements in order to hold a master's assistantship:
- Admission into the graduate college
- If teaching, must have a minimum of 18 graduate hours in the field to be taught
- Satisfactory GRE score (if applicable) and a satisfactory undergraduate GPA
- Maintain at least a 3.0 graduate GPA
- Be in good standing with the Graduate College
- Be enrolled in and complete at least 6 hours of graduate credit each term (3 hours for the entire summer session)
Applications for such positions must satisfy both the College of Graduate Studies and department requirements. Academic excellence and maturity are the primary qualifications.